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2 Methyl 2 Butanol Synthesis Essay

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  • Molecular structure of 2-methyl-2-butanol
    2M2B, 2m2b, 2-methyl-2-butanol
    2-methyl-2-butanol
    2-methylbutan-2-ol
    Depressant
    GABAergic

    2-Methyl-2-butanol (also known as tert-amyl alcohol or 2M2B) is a tertiary alcohol substance that produces depressant, hypnotic, and anxiolytic effects. Historically, it has been used in anesthesia as a component of avertin fluid mixed with tribromoethanol and water.[3] It has a strong solvent smell reminiscent of gasoline, but with little flavor. 2M2B's simple structure and intoxicating effects have led to its use as a recreational drug.[4]

    Fusel alcohols including 2M2B are a grain fermentation by-product and therefore present in many alcoholic beverages.[5] Trace levels of 2M2B have also been detected in various food substances, including fried bacon and cassava,[6][7] rooibos tea,[8] and fruits (such as apple and pineapple).

    Chemistry

    2-methyl-2-butanol is also known as tert-amyl-alcohol, 2M2B, or amylene hydrate. 2-methyl-2-butanol is an alcohol with the formula C5H11OH. 2-methyl-2-butanol is comprised of butane, an alkyl chain of four carbons. This chain is substituted at R2 with a methyl group CH3- and an alcohol group OH-. It is synthesized by the reaction of 2-methyl-2-butene with water in the presence of an acid catalyst.[9]

    Pharmacology

    2-Methyl-2-butanol inhibits binding to a proconvulsant site on the GABAreceptor[10] which causes negatively charged chloride ions to enter neurons and increase the amount of excitation necessary to cause the neurons to fire. As it is a tertiary alcohol, it cannot be metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase into aldehydes (which cause the hangover associated with consuming large amounts of ethanol). This makes 2M2B significantly safer than primary alcohols.[11] However, a consequence of this is that 2-methyl-2-butanol has an extended duration of action with effects which last up to 12 hours after its consumption.

    Subjective effects

    In comparison to other depressants of a similar nature, 2M2B is comparatively closer to alcohol than GHB in terms of its subjective effects and is also considerably more sedating than alcohol but less sedating than GHB.

    The effects listed below are based upon the subjective effects index and personal experiences of PsychonautWikicontributors. The listed effects should be taken with a grain of salt and will rarely (if ever) occur all at once, but heavier doses will increase the chances and are more likely to induce a full range of effects. Likewise, adverse effects become much more likely on higher doses and may include serious injury or death.

    Experience reports

    There are currently no anecdotal reports which describe the effects of this compound within our experience index. Additional experience reports can be found here:

    Toxicity and harm potential

    The toxicity and long-term health effects of recreational 2M2B use do not seem to have been studied in any scientific context and the exact toxic dosage is unknown although the lowest recorded fatal dose in a human is 30mL.[12] However, 2M2B is expected to be less toxic than ethanol as it cannot be metabolized into aldehydes in the same way.[13] Anecdotal evidence from people who have tried 2M2B within the community suggest that there do not seem to be any negative health effects attributed to simply trying this drug at low to moderate doses by itself and using it sparingly (but nothing can be completely guaranteed).

    It is strongly recommended that one use harm reduction practices when using this substance.

    Tolerance and addiction potential

    As with any other GABA receptor agonist, repeated use and increasing tolerance will eventually result in a withdrawal syndrome upon abrupt discontinuation resembling alcohol, barbiturate, or benzodiazepine withdrawal, up to and including delirium tremens ("the shakes"). The chronic use of this compound can be considered moderately addictive with a high potential for abuse and is capable of causing psychological dependence among certain users. When addiction has developed, cravings and withdrawal effects may occur if a person suddenly stops their usage.

    Tolerance to many of the effects of 2M2B develops with prolonged and repeated use. This results in users having to administer increasingly large doses to achieve the same effects. After that, it takes about 3 - 7 days for the tolerance to be reduced to half and 1 - 2 weeks to be back at baseline (in the absence of further consumption). 2M2B presents cross-tolerance with all GABAgenicdepressants, meaning that after the consumption of 2M2B all depressantss will have a reduced effect.

    Dangerous interactions

    Although many psychoactive substances are safe on their own, they can become dangerous and even life-threatening when combined with other substances. The list below contains some common potentially dangerous combinations, but may not include all of them. Certain combinations may be safe in low doses of each but still increase the potential risk of death. Independent research should always be done to ensure that a combination of two or more substances is safe before consumption.

    • Depressants (1,4-Butanediol, 2M2B, alcohol, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, GHB/GBL, methaqualone, opioids) - This combination potentiates the muscle relaxation, amnesia, sedation, and respiratory depression caused by one another. At higher doses, it can lead to a sudden, unexpected loss of consciousness along with a dangerous amount of depressed respiration. There is also an increased risk of vomiting while unconsciousness and dying from the resulting suffocation. If nausea or vomiting occurs before a loss of consciousness, users should attempt to fall asleep in the recovery position or have a friend move them into it.
    • Stimulants - It can be dangerous to combine depressants with stimulants due to the risk of accidental excessive intoxication. Stimulants mask the sedative effect of depressants, which is the main factor most people use to gauge their level of intoxication. Once the stimulant effects wear off, the effects of the depressant will significantly increase, leading to intensified disinhibition, motor control loss, and dangerous black-out states. This combination can also potentially result in severe dehydration if one's fluid intake is not closely monitored. If choosing to combine these substances, one should strictly limit themselves to a pre-set schedule of dosing only a certain amount per hour until a maximum threshold has been reached.

    Legal status

    This legality section is a stub.

    As such, it may contain incomplete or wrong information. You can help by expanding it.

    • United Kingdom - It is illegal to produce, supply, or import this drug under the Psychoactive Substance Act, which came into effect on May 26th, 2016.[14]

    See also

    External links

    References

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