Shakespeare's Macbeth is a Tragic Hero976 words - 4 pages Macbeth is a Tragic Hero "Shakespeare's tragic hero is a man of noble birth who falls from a position of honor and respect due to a flaw in his character. He freely chooses a course of action which ultimately causes him suffering and brings him to a fatal end."(Campbell 129) Macbeth is the epitome of a tragic hero who rises high then falls rock bottom to his death. Macbeth, once a noble man, follows the advice of witches, finds himself King, abuses his power and then gets killed. Macbeth goes through four stages until he reaches the end of his life; his original state, his tragic flaw, his downfall and finally his suffering. These four stages help to justify... VIEW DOCUMENT
Shakespeare's Macbeth is a Tragic Hero1165 words - 5 pages In the late 16th century and early 17th century, no playwright was better known than William Shakespeare. He was especially known for many famous tragedies. When Shakespeare wrote these plays he took many key aspects into account to create as much of an impact as possible on the reader or the audience. Macbeth, for example, is about one man, Macbeth who does what he thinks is necessary to become king but dies tragically due to his judgement. In this play, Shakespeare communicates how Macbeth's destiny can be changed depending on how he deals with his predicted future, in other words, his fate versus his free will. Macbeth makes many foolish decisions throughout ... VIEW DOCUMENT
Shakespeare's Macbeth is a Tragic Hero1848 words - 7 pages Macbeth is a Tragic Hero In many respects Macbeth, of Shakespeare’s play Macbeth is the least admirable tragic hero of literature. Typical tragic heroes have at least a few admirable character traits. One may, or may not like the hero, but there is something in their characters or their situation on which one can hang some sympathy, even if there is not enough for us to rationalize away their actions. But Macbeth is a mass murderer, who does away with friends, colleagues, women and children, often for no apparent reason other than his own desires. Why should Macbeth be considered a tragic hero? The answer, has to do with the quality of his mind, his... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth a tragic hero Essay792 words - 3 pages A Tragic Hero is a common figure in many of Shakespeare's works. A Tragic Hero is usually a figure of royalty, fame or greatness. This person is predominately good, but falls from prominence due to personality flaws that eventually lead to self-destruction. Macbeth's major flaws are his ambition and impressionability. Due to their flaws, a Tragic Hero's actions are often atrocious and cause them to battle with their conscience after their desires have been accomplished. These battles with their conscience evoke empathy from the audience. A Shakespearean Tragic Hero will always lose their life in the end of the play as a result of re-establishment of what is good in the play. In... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth- A Tragic Hero Essay958 words - 4 pages Macbeth- A Tragic Hero The meaning of the word Tragic Hero as defined by MicrosoftWorks dictionary is "A hero of noble stature whose fortunes are reversed as a result of weakness." There were many characters in the play Macbeth that were affected by tragedy for a number of reasons, but Macbeth and his reverse of fortunes as a result of his own actions, were without doubt a victim of this. Macbeth's actions lead him to his very nemesis. Right from the beginning of the play Macbeth's tragedy was evident through forces which were not human; the supernatural if you will. These forces were of the witches. The next factor involved in determining Macbeth's fate was his own... VIEW DOCUMENT
MacBeth - The Tragic Hero, Is MacBeth A "Tragic Hero?," MacBeth by Shakespeare925 words - 4 pages The Character of Macbeth fits Shakespeare's definition of a tragic hero. He let his main flaw, which is his ambition becomes his undoing. Three aspects of this will be discussed. The three prophecies that the witch's told Macbeth in the beginning, and how they used his flaw to manipulate him, how Lady Macbeth greatly influenced and manipulated Macbeth's judgment and finally his long time ambition which was his only driving force behind his desire to be king. Macbeth starts of as a true, noble man, but let his tragic flaw become his undoing.The prophecies that were told to Macbeth during his meeting with the three witches were a large factor and the triggering event to the beginning... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth as a Tragic Hero Essay1010 words - 4 pages A tragic hero is defined as a person who holds a seat of authority or power, but is doomed to eventually fall. The hero's tragic flaw, usually hubris or hamartia (excessive pride and rashness respectively), results in a spiraling downfall. Macbeth exemplifies these characteristics of a tragic hero. He is of noble birth and succumbs to hubris and his ambitious nature. By being victimized by not only the witches, but also his wife and the reader's sympathy towards him, Shakespeare portrays Macbeth as a tragic hero.Macbeth first meets the witches that will ultimately decide his fate in Act 1. The witches have the ability to foresee the future, which enables them to make predictions as... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth as A Tragic Hero Essay2503 words - 10 pages Macbeth as A Tragic Hero The character of Macbeth is a classic example of a Shakespearean tragic hero. There are many factors that contribute to the character of Macbeth of which three will be discussed. Macbeth is a typical tragic hero through his personality, actions, and qualities. One of Macbeth's traits that evoke the idea of a tragic hero is that he is worthy of the reader's interest. A tragic hero must be worthy of reader's interest, concern, or sympathy. Macbeth shows this through his bravery. In the begging of the play a battle goes on between King Duncan of Scotland and Macdonwald of Norway. Macbeth fights bravely on Scotland's side, and... VIEW DOCUMENT
A Shakesperean Tragic Hero - Macbeth1248 words - 5 pages A Shakespearean tragic hero may be defined as “an exceptional being of high degree” who contributes to his own degeneration and illustrates a personality flaw. The character of Shakespeare’s Macbeth is in all ways the perfect example of a tragic hero. His greatness and bravery in battle for his country ultimately leads him to be a great thane and eventually a powerful king, making his actions have a significant impact on a country. Macbeth’s ambition on becoming a king leads to an obsession to remain in his current position. His ambition comes to a point where he falls to the temptation of evil which leads to Macbeth’s inevitable downfall. There are many factors which contribute to the fall... VIEW DOCUMENT
macbeth as a tragic hero Essay788 words - 3 pages A Shakespearean tragic hero starts out as a noble person; a great exceptional being who stands out. A tragic hero has a tragic flaw of an exaggerated trait that leads to their downfall and eventually to death. William Shakespeare often made his main characters tragic heroes in his plays. In Shakespeare’s Macbeth, the role of the tragic hero is given to the main character: Macbeth. This is because he starts off as a loyal and well liked man in the beginning, but has a tragic flaw of ambition which ultimately leads to his downfall. Macbeth started off a great and noble man of Scotland and was honoured by the king and his people. He... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth as a tragic hero696 words - 3 pages Macbeth the Tragic hero "I go, and it is done; the bell invites me. Hear it not, Duncan, for it knell that summons thee to heaven, or to hell." This is a quote from Shakespeare's play Macbeth. The quote symbolizes Macbeth turning to the dark side. Macbeth is a historically based play. James I is placed into the play with his distant relationship with Banguo. Macbeth is a tragedy in which human actions have unavoidable consequences, where the characters sins and mistakes are never forgiven or rectified. Every tragedy has a tragic hero in this play Macbeth is the tragic hero. Macbeth is the tragic hero because he has a high station, tragic flaw, and a downfall... VIEW DOCUMENT
William Shakespeare: "Macbeth" - Why is Macbeth is a classic example of a Shakespearean tragic hero?951 words - 4 pages The character of Macbeth is a classic example of a Shakespearean tragic hero. There are many factors which contribute to the degeneration of Macbeth of which three will be discussed. The three points which contribute greatly to Macbeth's degeneration are the prophecy which was told to him by the witches, how Lady Macbeth influenced and manipulated Macbeth's judgment, and finally Macbeth's long time ambition which drove his desire to be king. Macbeth's growing character degenerates from a noble man to a violent individual.The prophecies which were told by the witches to Macbeth were that he will be "Thane of Glamis!"(Act 1, Scene 3, line 48), " VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth as a Shakespearean Tragic Hero2784 words - 11 pages Macbeth as a Shakespearean Tragic Hero In this essay I will be exploring how far Macbeth is considered to be a Shakespearean tragic hero. According to A.C Bradley, the man who defined what a Shakespearean tragic hero is, a typical Shakespearean tragic hero is a person of greatness and high power. We can see at the beginning of the play that Macbeth is the 'Thane of Glamis' but is then promoted, due to the execution of a traitor, to the 'Thane of Cawdor'. A Shakespearean tragic hero also has many character flaws, which lead to their downfall. Macbeth is an extremely ambitious character; he knows what he wants and how to get it, even if that means... VIEW DOCUMENT
The Extent to Which Macbeth is Portrayed as a Tragic Hero in Macbeth by William Shakespeare4007 words - 16 pages The Extent to Which Macbeth is Portrayed as a Tragic Hero in Macbeth by William Shakespeare A Shakespearean tragic hero according to Aristotle is usually a prominent figure, who happens to have distinctive flaws in their personality. Because of these flaws, and to a certain extent the influence of external force and or an ‘evil’ antagonist the character will experience a fall from prominence that will eventually lead to his suffering and often to his death. In Macbeth’s case, his fatal flaws are his impressionability, greed and most importantly his “vaulting ambition” and hubristic character. There is no direct antagonist in the play, but Macbeth is... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth tragic hero907 words - 4 pages Tragic Hero or Villain? MacBeth the play is considered a tragedy and every tragedy needs a tragic hero. There are many factors that caused the degeneration of Macbeth. Macbeth is not a villlian in this story he is a tragic hero. The major factor that started the downfall was the prophecy by the witches in Act 1, Scene 3. The witches were praising Macbeth. The first witch said, “All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Glamis!” The second witch said, “ All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Cawder!” The third witch said, “All hail, Macbeth! That shalt be King hereafter!” When Macbeth and Banquo are leaving the witches Banquo... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth- Tragic Hero?614 words - 2 pages To what extent do you consider Macbeth to be a tragic hero? I intend to explore Shakespeares Macbeth in an attempt to determine weather or not Macbeth meets the criteria of a tragic hero. The first example we come across in the play of Macbeth being a tragic hero is him being of high birth, in act one scene three after Macbeth wins in battle king Duncan comes to visit him at his castle, whilst there Duncan acknowledges that Macbeths position is needed close to the kings, this relationship with the king fills the first criteria of being a tragic hero, High birth. The next example we see of a tragic hero is good qualities, Macbeth has these good qualities as we see in the form of him... VIEW DOCUMENT
The Tragic Hero Macbeth1163 words - 5 pages It has always been a controversial debate that Macbeth has been a dead butcher not a tragic hero, since some literature experts have not recognized him as a hero but just a murderer. Based on thorough research, many critics have suggested that Macbeth, from the tragedy of Macbeth, has evidently been a tragic hero. The protagonist, Macbeth, possessed the flawed qualities of a tragic hero, by the fact that he was ambitious, immoral, and obedient.There is no doubt that the tragic hero, Macbeth, possessed the flawed... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth The Tragic Hero929 words - 4 pages In William Shakespeare's tragedy Macbeth, Macbeth is a "tragic" hero, in the sense that he is noble and respected at the first of the tragedy, but then leads to his own downfall, because of a character flaw, and outside circumstances such as Lady Macbeth's manipulation, and the witches' prophecies told to Macbeth, which lead to his fatal ambition. Macbeth also brings about suffering to innocent parties, to achieve his own selfish goals, which will eventually lead to his death. Macbeth, at the start of the tragedy, is a well-respected, savage, "heartless" warrior, and a traditional "hero", much like "Beowulf". He is a veteran of war, and is looked up to by other characters.... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth the Tragic Hero701 words - 3 pages Macbeth could justly be classified a “Tragic Hero” as his tragic story fills out the defined criteria for a tragic hero. Macbeth holds a significant social status, reveals essential truths about humanity through his suffering, has tragically wasted talent, contains a “tragic flaw” leading to his downfall and finally he finds some relief in his death. Macbeth, throughout this play, has held a substantial amount of power in society. Firstly he begins as the Thane of Glamis before becoming the Thane of Cawdor and finally King of Scotland. His death greatly affected everyone in Scotland, both those who stood by him and those who opposed and finally killed him. *****quotes from both sides*****... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth, The Tragic Hero991 words - 4 pages Macbeth is showed to be a brave, courage and tremendous warrior at the beginning of the play. He kills Maldonwald, a traitor, who leads a group of invaders to attack Scotland. As soon as Maldonwald is killed and Scotlands army put down the revolt and sends the rebels running, the king of Norway takes advantage of Scotlands weary soldiers by sending his forces against him. However, Macbeth is not troubled by the sudden assault. Macbeth is described as cannons overcharged with double cracks(1.2.37). Furthermore, he is highly praised by the sergeant when Malcolm orders him to report the status of the battle to VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth, The Tragic Hero2745 words - 11 pages All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Glamis! All hail, Macbeth! Hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor! All hail, Macbeth, that shalt be King hereafter! (Shakespeare 1.3.46-50)This quote is taken from Act 1, scene 3. It shows the prophecies said by the third Witches to Macbeth that he will become the Thane of Cawdor and King of Scotland. When Macbeth listens to such good news from the third witch, he is shocked yet interested. Because of his curiosity, he asks the third witches for more information... VIEW DOCUMENT
How successful is Shakespeare in portraying Macbeth as a tragic hero?982 words - 4 pages In most of Shakespeare's tragedies contain a tragic hero, and in these characters they have a tragic or fatal flaw, and blind spot that leads to there downfall. When the play was first seen people believed in the divine right of kings and really believed in witches, this made it really easy for Shakespeare to create an evil character; and although you don't see this the whole way through you get many messages of him being torn in two, a tragic hero.The first scene that you see is three witches, and right from the... VIEW DOCUMENT
Shakespeare's Macbeth - The Tragic Hero786 words - 3 pages Macbeth - The Tragic Hero Every true Elizabethan Tragedy comes complete with a tragic hero. The tragedy Macbeth, written by William Shakespeare, has a perfect example of a tragic hero, otherwise known as Macbeth. A tragic hero must be a man who is great and admirable in various ways. He should be placed in society in such a way that everything he does affects all of the members of his society. A tragic hero should at some point reach the top of Fortune’s Wheel, but land up at the bottom by the end of the tragedy due to the continual change of fate. Macbeth fits the description of being a tragic hero, displaying his strengths, his weaknesses, his tragic flaw, and how... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth by Shakespeare -tragic hero963 words - 4 pages Aristotle's definition of a tragic hero fits Macbeth very well. In Macbeth, written by William Shakespeare, Macbeth has all of the characteristics that are needed to be a tragic hero. Macbeth is a man of great potential and is a man of noble birth, he has a tragic flaw with a downfall and moment of recognition, and also creates cathartic feelings of fear and sadness. These qualities that he possesses help shape himself as the tragic hero of Macbeth.In the beginning of the play, Macbeth and Banquo are returning from a battle between the Scottish and Norwegians. They have won the battle for King Duncan, and this shows Macbeth's loyalty to his king. Macbeth is related to King Duncan,... VIEW DOCUMENT
Shakespeare's Macbeth as Tragic Hero707 words - 3 pages Macbeth as Tragic Hero A tragic hero is usually a person of high esteem or social ranking cursed with a flaw or obsession that will eventually lead to their demise. Macbeth is a tragic hero. Examining the events that occur as Macbeth travels the typical path of a tragic hero easily supports this claim. Before Macbeth is even introduced to the audience, Duncan and Ross speak of his greatness. When it is discovered that the Thane of Cawdor has surrendered, Duncan decides to give Macbeth this title: "What he hath lost noble Macbeth hath won" (1.2.70). This lets the audience see Macbeth's rank, which starts him in the right direction for a tragic hero. As Macbeth... VIEW DOCUMENT
Shakespeare's Macbeth as Tragic Hero906 words - 4 pages Macbeth as Tragic Hero Aristotle defined a tragic character is a man who “falls into misfortune through some flaw." (Grube, 5) Shakespeare's tragic hero is a man who falls from his position of honor and respect due to a flaw in character and ultimately arrives at a fatal end. (Nostbakken, 2) Macbeth is an epitome of a tragic hero. He had a good nature, but was driven by greed and a quest for power. Macbeth had been a military hero, loved and praised by the people, but his blind ambition resulted in his destruction, and all his past greatness and happiness were lost. This essay will explore Macbeth’s path toward destruction and show how he became the epitome of a tragic hero. ... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth, The Tragic Hero. Shakespeare.1011 words - 4 pages Macbeth is a loyal, courageous warrior. He fights one of the most important battles to save Scotland, and to honor this bravery, King Duncan gives Macbeth the title of Thane of Cawdor. By encountering three witches and them telling him his future, his life slowly retrogresses. As the play goes on Macbeths character completely changes, from being a respectable man to becoming a monster. There are many issues along the lines of his change in character. He affects all of the people around him, his wife friends, and other acquaintances. Macbeth has motivations and many tragic flaws which lead to his ultimate... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth as a Tragic Hero in William Shakespeare's Play2107 words - 8 pages Macbeth as a Tragic Hero in William Shakespeare's Play Macbeth is a Shakespearian play involving an ambitious brave warrior, (Macbeth) who is cousin to the King of Scotland. The play focuses on Macbeths ambitions. Macbeth meets three weird sisters, who predict that one day he would be king. But Macbeth's ambition over took his life as he ended up doing anything to become king, even kill the ones closest to him. There is a great battle at the end of the play in which Macbeth is killed, proving that Macbeth would even be prepared to die to make his ambitions come true. Is Macbeth a Shakespearian tragic hero? To fulfill the role of a tragic hero the... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth as a Tragic Hero in William Shakespeare's Play2152 words - 9 pages Macbeth as a Tragic Hero in William Shakespeare's Play The play ‘Macbeth’ gives us many opportunities to consider the reasons for Macbeth’s actions. In this essay I will be considering the factors that have made Macbeth behave in such a way that he goes as far as killing his King, his companions, his companions’ families and drove his wife Lady MacBeth to commit suicide. I will also be talking about the techniques that Shakespeare has used to write this play. Shakespeare uses lots of similes, which is a technique that gives the audience a direct access to the characters inner thought as the other characters cannot hear him. Macbeth has three main... VIEW DOCUMENT
Was Macbeth too much a victim to be a full tragic hero? Was he too manipulated by the Witches, Lady Macbeth, and fate (to be considered a tragic hero)?942 words - 4 pages The play Macbeth, by William Shakespeare, is a tragedy about a Scottish lord, Macbeth, who becomes too ambitious. He starts off as a brave, loyal and noble man, but his ambition and thirst for power lead him onto a path of ruthlessness and self-destruction, and ultimately his own death. While Macbeth is manipulated by various people and occurrences, the main ones being the witches, Lady Macbeth and Fate, one theme that remains constant throughout the play is the power of choice. Macbeth does have the ability to choose, and it is this ability that makes him a tragic hero, not a victim.There are certain characteristics that someone must have in order to be considered a full tragic... VIEW DOCUMENT
Discuss Macbeth as a tragic hero - his strengths, his weaknesses, his tragic flaw and the effect of outside influences on his nature.704 words - 3 pages Discuss Macbeth as a tragic hero - his strengths, his weaknesses, his tragic flaw and the effect of outside influences on his nature.The contributions of Macbeth towards his fate in becoming the 'tragic hero' is evident from the first act. Like other of Shakespearean plays, the tragic hero, Macbeth, is noble, honourable and highly respected by the general public at the start of the play. Unfortunately Macbeth contributes to his own fate more than what is implied. What seems to be his strengths, backfires and these become his weaknesses.During the play, Macbeth's strengths were ambition, courage, and honour. Prior to the murders Macbeth utilised his strengths well and this... VIEW DOCUMENT
Great Gatsby is a tragic hero940 words - 4 pages F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby is a classic American tragedy. The novel has all the basic elements necessary to classify a story as a tragedy: a tragic hero, his character flaw, and a twist of fate which results in the hero's ultimate destruction. Jay Gatsby is the doomed tragic hero, blinded by his irrational dream to relive the past. Fate interferes in the form of the unexpected manslaughter of one character's mistress by his wife. All these facets of the story come together to cause the end of Gatsby.In order for a character to be defined as a tragic hero, he must be noble in character. Jay... VIEW DOCUMENT
Is Macbeth a hero or villian?616 words - 2 pages Throughout the play Macbeth, there are many crimes and manipulating. Macbeth plans most murders for superiority. This makes us wonder if Macbeth is a hero or a villain. With that Macbeth is both a hero and villain from different perspectives.In the beginning of the play, Macbeth and Banquo go to war against Macdonwald and his band of rebels. Macbeth was a great warrior which in return defeated Macdonwald. Duncan rewarded Macbeth with the title of "Thane of... VIEW DOCUMENT
Oedipus A Tragic Hero565 words - 2 pages Ashley McHugh English 4 Pd.5 Hero Essay 10/22/01 According to Aristotle, a tragic hero is one who evokes our pity and terror if he is neither completely good nor completely evil, but is a mixture of both. A tragic hero is also one who suffers a change in fortune from happiness to misery, because of misfortune. The tragic hero receives our pity because his misfortune was greater than he deserved, he is deprived of something very valuable to him by error of judgment. We must be able to identify ourselves with a tragic hero, which will evoke fear... VIEW DOCUMENT
Antony - A Tragic Hero?1513 words - 6 pages In order to determine whether Antony is a tragic hero in Antony and Cleopatra, we must first define exactly what a tragic hero is, before being able to analyse whether Antony is portrayed as such. It is generally accepted that a tragic hero is a “man of noble stature”, who falls from a place grace, who exhibits many extraordinary qualities that set him apart from other men and who is a remarkable example of someone in his position. A key element of a tragic hero is that the audience must feel pity for the character’s death or downfall and there are several reasons both why the audience would feel pity for and why they wouldn’t feel pity for Antony upon his death. Antony is generally highly... VIEW DOCUMENT
Antigone: A Tragic Hero955 words - 4 pages Heroes come in many forms. Some such as immense in size and strength as Hercules, some in the form of people that are shunned upon, such as Harriet Tubman, and some that are only valorous heroes to some, such as Kurt Cobain. These heroes have many characteristics that make people flock to their side and follow them without a thought of hesitation. In Sophocles' Antigone the hero is a women that believes in her heart far stronger than that of her leader's rule. This... VIEW DOCUMENT
Oedipus: A Tragic Hero693 words - 3 pages Oedipus: A Tragic Hero Oedipus Rex, or Oedipus the King is Sophocles’s first play of “The Theban Cycle.” It tells the story of a king that tries to escape his fate, but by doing so he only brings about his downfall. Oedipus is a classic example of the Aristotelian definition of a tragic hero. Aristotle defines a tragic hero as a basically good and noble person who causes his own downfall due to a flaw in his character. Oedipus is a man of noble blood; his parents, who raised him as a child, were King Polybus and Queen Merope of Corinth. Oedipus also becomes a king himself when he solves the Sphinx’s riddle, thus saving Thebes and taking over the throne of the late King... VIEW DOCUMENT
Oedipus, a Tragic Hero1021 words - 4 pages Oedipus a Tragic Hero What is a tragic hero? A Tragic hero is a man or character who has great influence, makes an error in his or her actions, and who must suffer the consequences of those actions. Oedipus’ tragic flaws starts with his excessive pride which leads to overconfidence as the people in the city lift him up and feed his ego: “You are not one of the immortal gods we know; Yet we have come to you to make our prayer. As to the man of all men best in adversity and wisest in the ways of God.” (Prologue, Line 34-37) Personality/character changes that moved him from being a great king to a blind man. In the prologue Oedipus is seen as a captain of the ship: “Ah, when years of... VIEW DOCUMENT
"Death of a Salesman" Is Willy a tragic hero? Does he have a tragic flaw? discussion1225 words - 5 pages I did not find Willy to be a tragic hero- according to Aritstotle he would of been a manwho enjoys great reputation and good fortune. Willy had neither of these. I found himto be irresponsible, unable to live in his reality- cheating on his wife- somone who wouldrather borrow money from Charley- a friend than to work for him. I feel that he tookthe easy way out by killing himself. He did in the end provide for his wife- however-now she is alone. All those years of financial stress and "standing behind her man" -she is left "free & clear" finally owning the home she'd lived in for 25 years but now shelives there without the one she's... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth: Not A Hero1185 words - 5 pages What makes a hero a hero? By definition, a hero display courage in adverse situations and who are willing to self-sacrifice in positions of weakness. Based on this definition, the character of Macbeth is not a hero but a man whose lust for power led to his own destruction and take opposition against Ian Johnston’s Introduction to Macbeth. I believe that the character of Macbeth in Shakespeare’s tragedy Macbeth is not a hero because he was responsible for killing Duncan, murdered people on unjustified grounds, and was the cause of his own demise In Johnston’s lecture he says that Macbeth cannot be held accountable for the death of Duncan. The lecture says, “His (Macbeth) imagination has... VIEW DOCUMENT
Antigone as a Tragic Hero509 words - 2 pages Antigone as a tragic hero The debate over who is the tragic hero in Antigone is unanswered. The belief that Antigone is the hero is a tough one. Antigone is widely thought of as the tragic hero of the play bearing her name. She would seem to fit the part in light of the fact that she dies for doing what she believes is right. She buries her brother without worrying what might happen to her. Unlike Antigone, Ismene says “And break the law, our death will be more shameful even then theirs” (pg.5 line 60). In Sophocle's Antigone, the characters show a variety of traits. However, Antigone's life of aspiration, family of noble rank, and display of good mentality portray her as the tragic hero... VIEW DOCUMENT
Macbeth-a true hero?1557 words - 6 pages The word hero is usually associated with superheroes that are commonplace on today's television. This is the stereotypical view of a man with special powers and a bright uniform. The dictionary defines a hero as a man who displays courage and noble qualities. It is also defined as a main male character in a story, play or film. The fictional heroes that spawned from comic books all display similar qualities of honesty, bravery, immortality and loyalty. Their loyalty lies in their beliefs and strives for peace and a crime-free society. An example of a fictional hero is Superman. He displays all the qualities mentioned above, with the added bonus of superhuman strength. A real hero, in more... VIEW DOCUMENT
Jay Gatsby: A Tragic Hero1064 words - 4 pages "Tragedy, then, is a process of imitating an action which has serious implications, is complete, and possesses magnitude; by means of language which has been made sensuously attractive, with each of its varieties found separately in the parts; enacted by the persons themselves and not presented through narrative; through a course of pity and fear completing the purification (catharsis) of such emotions." (Aristotle) The “tragic hero” is an indefatigable staple in all mediums of literature. Although the term’s defining characteristics have morphed since its initial inception by Aristotle those many millennia ago, the main idea has endured. To be a tragic hero, several requirements must... VIEW DOCUMENT
Gladiator: Commodus A Tragic Hero1149 words - 5 pages After its debut in America on May 5th of 2000, the movie Gladiator has been a nationwide symbol of heroism(Imdb). The film was directed by Ridley Scott and the lead roles of the film were carried out by Russell Crowe as Maximus and Joaquin Phoenix as Commodus(Imdb). The movie takes place during the reign of the Holy Roman Empire in the year 180 A.D. The Emperor, Marcus Aurelius, is dying and wishes to leave the Roman Empire under the control of Roman General Maximus Meridius. The Emperor’s son Commodus betrays Maximus, kills his father, and takes control of Rome. In betraying Maximus, Commodus has his family killed. Maximus knowing this returns to Rome as a gladiator under the alias... VIEW DOCUMENT
Faust as a Tragic Hero763 words - 3 pages Faust as a Tragic Hero In the story of Faust, written by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Faust is whirled into an adventure of sin and deceit. The further Faust follows the devil the closer he comes to his own demise, taking down with him the innocent Gretchen. As Faust goes on he embodies the characteristics of a tragic hero in a sense that he is borderline good and evil, constantly battling his conscience. The one major flaw that initiates his self-destruction is the fact that he feels he is extremely intelligent and can not be out witted. Faust is a man of privilege, his father having been a doctor and himself a respected scholar; but he is essentially a desperate... VIEW DOCUMENT
Brutus: A True Tragic Hero1082 words - 4 pages The Tragedy of Julius Caesar by William Shakespeare is the story about the men who conspired and followed through with the assassination of the great Julius Caesar. These men fear that Caesar will take the crown and become the next king of Rome. The roman people had a true averse feeling toward the idea of monarchy. So in order to prevent this they come up with a plan to end Caesars life, which is duly followed through on March 15, 44 B.C. Out of these conspirators there is one man that stands out to be a tragic hero, and that is a man by the name of Brutus. He was a great friend of Caesar who ultimately became one of Caesars worst adversaries. He betrayed Caesars trust and friendship when... VIEW DOCUMENT
Othello as a Tragic Hero785 words - 3 pages Othello is a tragic hero because of his greatnesses and his weaknesses. He is a noble man who possesses all the qualities of a military leader, which he is. He has control over himself and shows courage as well as dignity. Just as Othello is a virtuous man there are some flaws within him, these flaws complete him ff as a tragic hero. Othello is often blinded by trust and can not see a person for who they really are. He trusts the people around him even when they mean to afflict harm upon him. Through this, it can be seen why Othello is one of the most tragic hero out of all the characters from Shakespeare’s many plays. To begin with, Othello is a graceful man with a valiant personality... VIEW DOCUMENT
John Proctor: A Tragic Hero732 words - 3 pages A Tragedy as a literary Work is described in which there is a hero that is basically moral individual destroyed by some character flaw and by force beyond his or her control. That hero is a tragic hero who experiences an inner struggle because of this flaw. Because of his charter flaw and his struggle to do what is right, John Proctor is a tragic hero. John Proctor is a very friendly man. Everyone likes being his friend. He is open, kind, helpful, upright, blunt-spoken, and just a good, hard-working man. John has lots of faith in God but little in humans. He knows that mankind is good but he also knows that they are weak and imperfect. “Proctor: I’ve heard you to be a sensible man, Mr.... VIEW DOCUMENT
Is Macbeth A Tragic Hero Essay Examples
This article is about the character in Shakespeare's Macbeth. For other uses, see Lady Macbeth (disambiguation).
Lady Macbeth is a leading character in William Shakespeare'stragedyMacbeth (c.1603–1607). The wife of the play's tragic hero, Macbeth (a Scottish nobleman), Lady Macbeth goads her husband into committing regicide, after which she becomes queen of Scotland. Later, however, she suffers pangs of guilt for her part in the crime, which drives her to sleepwalk. She dies off-stage in the last act, an apparent suicide.
According to some genealogists, Lady Macbeth and King Duncan's wife were siblings or cousins, where Duncan's wife had a stronger claim to the throne than Lady Macbeth. It was this that incited her jealousy and hatred of Duncan.
The character's origins lie of the accounts of Kings Duff and Duncan in Holinshed's Chronicles (1587), a history of Britain familiar to Shakespeare. Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth appears to be a composite of two separate and distinct personages in Holinshed's work: Donwald's nagging, murderous wife in the account of King Duff and Macbeth's ambitious wife Gruoch of Scotland in the account of King Duncan.
Lady Macbeth is a powerful presence in the play, most notably in the first two acts. Following the murder of King Duncan, however, her role in the plot diminishes. She becomes an uninvolved spectator to Macbeth's plotting and a nervous hostess at a banquet dominated by her husband's hallucinations. Her sleepwalking scene in the fifth act is a turning point in the play, and her line "Out, damned spot!" has become a phrase familiar to many speakers of the English language. The report of her death late in the fifth act provides the inspiration for Macbeth's "Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow" speech.
Analysts see in the character of Lady Macbeth the conflict between femininity and masculinity as they are impressed in cultural norms. Lady Macbeth suppresses her instincts toward compassion, motherhood, and fragility — associated with femininity — in favour of ambition, ruthlessness, and the singleminded pursuit of power. This conflict colours the entire drama and sheds light on gender-based preconceptions from Shakespearean England to the present.
The role has attracted countless notable actors over the centuries, including Sarah Siddons, Charlotte Melmoth, Helen Faucit, Ellen Terry, Jeanette Nolan, Vivien Leigh, Simone Signoret, Vivien Merchant, Glenda Jackson, Francesca Annis, Judith Anderson, Judi Dench, Renée O'Connor, Tabu, Keeley Hawes, Alex Kingston, Angela Bassett and Marion Cotillard and Hannah Taylor-Gordon
Shakespeare's Lady Macbeth appeared to be a composite of two personages found in the account of King Duff and in the account of King Duncan in Holinshed's Chronicles (1587). In the account of King Duff, one of his captains, Donwald, suffers the deaths of his kinsmen at the orders of the king. Donwald then considers regicide at "the setting on of his wife", who "showed him the means whereby he might soonest accomplish it." Donwald abhors such an act, but perseveres at the nagging of his wife. After plying the king's servants with food and drink and letting them fall asleep, the couple admit their confederates to the king's room, where they then commit the regicide. The murder of Duff has its motivation in revenge rather than ambition.
In Holinshed's account of King Duncan, the discussion of Lady Macbeth is confined to a single sentence:
"The words of the three Weird Sisters also (of whom before ye have heard) greatly encouraged him hereunto; but specially his wife lay sore upon him to attempt the thing, as she was very ambitious, burning with an unquenchable desire to bear the name of a queen."
Not found in Holinshed are the invocation to the "spirits that tend on mortal thoughts," the sleepwalking scene, and various details found in the drama concerning the death of Macbeth.
Although Macbeth's wife can be traced to a real-world counterpart, Queen Gruoch of Scotland, Shakespeare's fictional character is tied so weakly to her that the bonds are virtually non-existent.
Role in the play
Lady Macbeth makes her first appearance late in scene five of the first act, when she learns in a letter from her husband that three witches have prophesied his future as king. When King Duncan becomes her overnight guest, Lady Macbeth seizes the opportunity to effect his murder. Aware her husband's temperament is "too full o' the milk of human kindness" for committing a regicide, she plots the details of the murder; then, countering her husband's arguments and reminding him that he first broached the matter, she belittles his courage and manhood, finally winning him to her designs.
The king retires after a night of feasting. Lady Macbeth drugs his attendants and lays daggers ready for the commission of the crime. Macbeth kills the sleeping king while Lady Macbeth waits nearby. When he brings the daggers from the king's room, Lady Macbeth orders him to return them to the scene of the crime. He refuses. She carries the daggers to the room and smears the drugged attendants with blood. The couple retire to wash their hands.
Following the murder of King Duncan, Lady Macbeth's role in the plot diminishes. When Duncan's sons flee the land in fear for their own lives, Macbeth is appointed king. Without consulting his queen, Macbeth plots other murders in order to secure his throne, and, at a royal banquet, the queen is forced to dismiss her guests when Macbeth hallucinates. In her last appearance, she sleepwalks in profound torment. She dies off-stage, with suicide being suggested as its cause, when Malcolm declares that she died by "self and violent hands."
In the First Folio, the only source for the play, she is never referred to as Lady Macbeth, but variously as "Macbeth's wife", "Macbeth's lady", or just "lady".
Main article: Sleepwalking scene (Macbeth)
The sleepwalking scene is one of the more celebrated scenes from Macbeth, and, indeed, in all of Shakespeare. It has no counterpart in Holinshed's Chronicles, Shakespeare's source material for the play, but is solely the bard's invention.
A.C. Bradley notes that, with the exception of the scene's few closing lines, the scene is entirely in prose with Lady Macbeth being the only major character in Shakespearean tragedy to make a last appearance "denied the dignity of verse." According to Bradley, Shakespeare generally assigned prose to characters exhibiting abnormal states of mind or abnormal conditions such as somnambulism, with the regular rhythm of verse being inappropriate to characters having lost their balance of mind or subject to images or impressions with no rational connection. Lady Macbeth's recollections – the blood on her hand, the striking of the clock, her husband's reluctance – are brought forth from her disordered mind in chance order with each image deepening her anguish. For Bradley, Lady Macbeth's "brief toneless sentences seem the only voice of truth" with the spare and simple construction of the character's diction expressing a "desolating misery." Lady Macbeth's compulsive washing of her hands to rid them of blood is reminiscent of hand washing common among sufferers from Obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Analyses of the role
Lady Macbeth as anti-mother
Stephanie Chamberlain in her article "Fantasicing" Infanticide: Lady Macbeth and the Murdering Mother in Early Modern England" argues that though Lady Macbeth wants power, her power is “conditioned on maternity”, which was a “conflicted status in early modern England.” Chamberlain argues that the negative images of Lady Macbeth as a mother figure, such as when she discusses her ability to "bash the brain of the babe that sucks her breast", reflect controversies concerning the image of motherhood in early modern England. In early modern England, mothers were often accused of hurting the people that were placed in their hands. Lady Macbeth then personifies all mothers of early modern England who were condemned for Lady Macbeth’s fantasy of infanticide. Lady Macbeth’s fantasy, Chamberlain argues, is not struggling to be a man, but rather struggling with the condemnation of being a bad mother that was common during that time.
Jenijoy La Belle takes a slightly different view in her article, "A Strange Infirmity: Lady Macbeth’s Amenorrhea." La Belle states that Lady Macbeth does not wish for just a move away from femininity; she is asking the spirits to eliminate the basic biological characteristics of womanhood. The main biological characteristic that La Belle focuses on is menstruation. La Belle argues that by asking to be "unsex[ed]" and crying out to spirits to “make thick [her] blood / Stop up th’ access and passage to remorse,” Lady Macbeth asks for her menstrual cycle to stop. By having her menstrual cycle stop, Lady Macbeth hopes to stop any feelings of sensitivity and caring that is associated with females. She hopes to become like a man to stop any sense of remorse for the regicide. La Belle furthers her argument by connecting the stopping of the menstrual cycle with the persistent infanticide motifs in the play. La Belle gives examples of "the strangled babe" whose finger is thrown into the witches’ cauldron (4.1.30); Macduff’s babes who are "savagely slaughter’d" (4.3.235); and the suckling babe with boneless gums whose brains Lady Macbeth would dash out (1.7.57–58) to argue that Lady Macbeth represents the ultimate anti-mother: not only would she smash in a baby’s brains but she would go even further to stop her means of procreation altogether.
Lady Macbeth as witch
Some literary critics and historians argue that not only does Lady Macbeth represent an anti-mother figure in general, she also embodies a specific type of anti-mother: the witch. Critic Joanna Levin defines a witch as a woman who succumbs to Satanic force, a lust for the devil, and who, either for this reason or the desire to obtain supernatural powers, invokes (evil) spirits. English physician Edward Jorden published Briefe Discourse of a Disease Called the Suffocation of the Mother in 1603, in which he speculated that this force literally derived from the female sexual reproductive organs. Because no one else had published any other studies on the susceptibility of women, especially mothers, to becoming both the witch and the bewitched (i.e. demonically possessed), Jorden's findings helped create the foundation for the views popularized during the Renaissance about the relationship between women and witchcraft. Levin refers to Marianne Hester's Lewd Women and Wicked Witches: A Study of Male Domination, in which Hester articulates a feminist interpretation of the witch as an empowered woman. Levin summarises the claim of feminist historians like Hester: the witch should be a figure celebrated for her nonconformity, defiance, and general sense of empowerment; witches challenged patriarchal authority and hierarchy, specifically "threatening hegemonic sex/gender systems." This view associates witchcraft — and by extension, Lady Macbeth — not with villainy and evil, but with heroism.
Jenijoy La Belle assesses Lady Macbeth's femininity and sexuality as they relate to motherhood as well as witchhood. The fact that she conjures spirits likens her to a witch, and the act itself establishes a similarity in the way that both Lady Macbeth and the Weird Sisters from the play "use the metaphoric powers of language to call upon spiritual powers who in turn will influence physical events — in one case the workings of the state, in the other the workings of a woman's body." Like the witches, Lady Macbeth strives to make herself an instrument for bringing about the future She proves herself a defiant, empowered nonconformist, and an explicit threat to a patriarchal system of governance in that, through challenging his masculinity, she manipulates Macbeth into murdering King Duncan. Despite the fact that she calls him a coward, Macbeth remains reluctant, until she asks: "What beast wasn't, then, that made you break this enterprise to me? / When you durst do it, then you were a man; / And to be more than what you were, you would / Be so much more the man." Thus Lady Macbeth enforces a masculine conception of power, yet only after pleading to be unsexed, or defeminised. The Weird Sisters are also depicted as defeminised, androgynous figures. They are bearded (1.3.46), (which may also be associated with Lady Macbeth's amenorrhea). Witches were perceived as an extreme type of anti-mother, even considered capable of cooking and eating their own children. Although Lady Macbeth may not express violence toward her child with that same degree of grotesqueness, she certainly expresses a sense of brutality when she states that she would smash the baby's head.
John Rice, a boy actor with the King's Men, may have played Lady Macbeth in a performance of what was likely Shakespeare's tragedy at the Globe Theatre on 20 April 1611. The performance was witnessed and described by Simon Forman in his manuscript The Book of Plays and Notes thereof per Formans for Common Policy. His account, however, does not establish whether the play was Shakespeare's Macbeth or a work on the same subject by another dramatist. The role may have been beyond the talents of a boy actor and may have been played by a man in early performances.
In the mid-18th century, Hannah Pritchard played Lady Macbeth opposite David Garrick's Macbeth. She was, in Thomas Davies' words, "insensible to compunction and inflexibly bent on cruelty."
Sarah Siddons starred in John Philip Kemble's 1794 production at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane and offered a psychologically intricate portrait of Lady Macbeth in the tradition of Hannah Pritchard. Siddons was especially praised for moving audiences in the sleepwalking scene with her depiction of a soul in profound torment. Siddons and Kemble furthered the view established by Pritchard and Garrick that character was the essence of Shakespearean drama.
William Hazlitt commented on Siddons' performance:
In speaking of the character of Lady Macbeth, we ought not to pass over Mrs. Siddons's manner of acting that part. We can conceive of nothing grander. It was something above nature. It seemed almost as if a being of a superior order had dropped from a higher sphere to awe the world with the majesty of her appearance. Power was seated on her brow, passion emanated from her breast as from a shrine; she was tragedy personified. In coming on in the sleeping-scene, her eyes were open, but their sense was shut. She was like a person bewildered and unconscious of what she did. Her lips moved involuntarily — all her gestures were involuntary and mechanical. She glided on and off the stage like an apparition. To have seen her in that character was an event in every one's life, not to be forgotten.
Helen Faucit was critiqued by Henry Morley, a professor of English literature in University College, London, who thought the actress "too demonstrative and noisy" in the scenes before Duncan's murder with the "Come, you spirits" speech "simply spouted" and its closing "Hold! Hold!" shouted in a "most unheavenly manner." In the "I have given suck" speech, he thought Faucit "poured out" the speech in a way that recalled the "scold at the door of a gin-shop." Faucit, he believed, was "too essentially feminine, too exclusively gifted with the art of expressing all that is most beautiful and graceful in womanhood, to succeed in inspiring anything like awe and terror." He thought her talents more congenial to the second phase of the character, and found her "admirably good" in the banquet scene. Her sleepwalking scene, however, was described as having "the air of a too well-studied dramatic recitation."
In 1884 at the Gaiety Theatre, Sarah Bernhardt performed the sleepwalking scene barefoot and clad in a clinging nightdress, and, in 1888, a critic noted Ellen Terry was "the stormy dominant woman of the eleventh century equipped with the capricious emotional subltety of the nineteenth century."
In 1915 and 1918, Sybil Thorndike played the role at Old Vic and then at the Prince's Theatre in 1926. Flora Robson played the role in Tyrone Guthrie's Old Vic production in 1934. In 1955, Vivien Leigh played Lady Macbeth opposite Laurence Olivier at the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon. In 1977 at The Other Place in Stratford, Judi Dench and Ian McKellen played the infamous husband and wife in Trevor Nunn's production. Other notable Lady Macbeths in the late 20th century included Judith Anderson, Pamela Brown, Diana Wynyard, Simone Signoret, Vivien Merchant, Jane Lapotaire, Helen Mirren and Janet Suzman.
Jeanette Nolan performed the role in Orson Welles' 1948 film adaptation and was critiqued by Bosley Crowther in the New York Times of 28 December 1950: "The Lady Macbeth of Jeanette Nolan is a pop-eyed and haggard dame whose driving determination is as vagrant as the highlights on her face. Likewise, her influence upon Macbeth, while fleetingly suggested in a few taut lines and etched in a couple of hot embraces, is not developed adequately. The passion and torment of the conflict between these two which resides in the play has been rather seriously neglected in this truncated rendering." Michael Costello of Allmovie has described her performance as "uneven" and has also stated, "Her unique Lady Macbeth is either an exhibition of rank scenery-chewing or a performance of intriguingly Kabuki-like stylization."
In 2009, Pegasus Books published The Tragedy of Macbeth Part II, a play by American author and playwright Noah Lukeman, which endeavoured to offer a sequel to Macbeth and to resolve its many loose ends, particularly Lady Macbeth’s reference to her having had a child (which, historically, she did - from a previous marriage, having remarried Macbeth after being widowed.) Written in blank verse, the play was published to critical acclaim.
Alex Kingston starred as Lady Macbeth opposite Kenneth Branagh in his and Rob Ashford's adaption of Macbeth. The play was first performed at the Manchester Festival in 2013 and then transferred to New York for a limited engagement in 2014.
Marion Cotillard played the character in Justin Kurzel's 2015 film adaptation opposite Michael Fassbender.
In popular culture
- During former United States President Bill Clinton's 1992 campaign for the American presidency, Daniel Wattenberg's August 1992 The American Spectator article "The Lady Macbeth of Little Rock", and some twenty other articles in major publications drew comparisons between his wife and Lady Macbeth, questioning Hillary Clinton's ideological and ethical record in comparison to Shakespeare's famous character and suggesting parallels.
- In The Simpsons twentieth episode of the twentieth season, Four Great Women and a Manicure is loosely based on Macbeth. In the third act of the episode, Marge embodies Lady Macbeth, an ambitious wife who is frustrated by everything around her. She not only has to clean the costumes worn by other actors, but is also frustrated over the fact that Homer doesn't have any interest in auditioning for lead roles and would rather play a tree. She convinces him to kill Sideshow Mel and he does to assume the lead role of Macbeth. When Marge learns that no one cares for Homer's lack of acting skills over Hibbert's and those with no lines, she forces him to kill off everyone else until he's the only actor left. The angry spirits visit her that night and she tries to pin the blame on Homer. They refuse to believe Marge by pointing out that they knew he was a victim in her devious plans and get their revenge on her by killing her in a fright induced heart attack. Even though Homer gives Marge's ghost a promising performance, he eventually frustrates her more by killing himself so he doesn't have to audition for more Shakespearean plays. This forces Marge to learn her lesson the hard way when she must spend eternity with a lazy and happy Homer.
- In 2008 Three Rivers Press published Lady Macbeth by Susan Fraser King. The novel is original fiction, based on source material regarding the period and person of Lady Macbeth.
- Julia Gillard was compared to Lady Macbeth after she ousted Kevin Rudd as Prime Minister of Australia in June 2010. The most often cited parallels between Gillard and Lady Macbeth being that Gillard was a red-haired and 'deliberately barren' woman, while the event itself occurred late in the evening, much like King Duncan's murder. Additionally, the perpetrator succeeded the victim, Julia Gillard became the Prime Minister after "killing" Kevin Rudd's career while the Macbeths were proclaimed King and Queen after King Duncan's death. Additional parallels to the play Macbeth, more broadly, include the fact that Gillard was labelled a witch, was the recipient of misogynistic attitudes, and Gillard's statement to Senator Kim Carr that the Labor Government was sleepwalking to defeat.
- ^Holinshed's Chronicles, Volume V: Scotland, page 269
- ^Macbeth, Act 5, Scene 8, Line 71.
- ^Macbeth, Act 5, Scene 1.
- ^A.C. Bradley. Shakespearean Tragedy. Palgrave Macmillan; 4th edition, 2007.
- ^Chamberlain, Stephanie. "Fantasizing Infanticide: Lady Macbeth and the Murdering Mother in Early Modern England." College Literature. Vol. 32.2. West Chester University, 2005. pp. 72–91.
- ^ abLa Belle, Jenijoy. "A Strange Infirmity: Lady Macbeth's Amenorrhea." Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. 31.3. Folger Shakespeare Library, 1980. pp. 381–386.
- ^ abcBevington, David. Four Tragedies. Bantam, 1988.
- ^Braunmiller, A. R. Macbeth. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
- ^Morley, Henry. The Journal of a London Playgoer from 1851 to 1866. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1866. pp. 350–354
- ^Crowther, Bosley. "Orson Welles' Interpretation of Shakespeare's 'Macbeth' at the Trans-Lux 60th St." New York Times, 28 December 1950.
- ^ abWattenberg, Daniel (August 1992). "The Lady Macbeth of Little Rock". The American Spectator.
- ^Burns, Lisa M. (2008). First Ladies and the Fourth Estate: Press Framing of Presidential Wives. DeKalb, Illinois: Northern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-87580-391-1. - p. 142
- ^Fraser King, Susan (2008). Lady Macbeth. New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-307-34175-4.
- ^Koziol, Michael (23 September 2014). "'Lady-in-waiting to Lady Macbeth': Julia Gillard opens up on mistakes". Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media.
- ^"Heffernan's 'deliberately barren' the most sexist remark of 2007". Fairfax Media. 13 November 2007.
- ^Massola, James (23 June 2015). "Julia Gillard on the moment that should have killed Tony Abbott's career". Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media.
- ^Massola, James (13 June 2013). PM white-anted Rudd before leader's challenge. Fairfax Media.