In the traditional note system, it is more common to use a bibliography than a list of references. In some cases when you use endnotes rather than footnotes, an additional bibliography may not be required. (Check with your lecturer).
At the end of your assignment, attach a list of all material which you have consulted in preparing your work. The list may contain items which you have chosen not to quote from or which you have decided were not helpful. Nevertheless, these items have formed part of your preparation and should be included. The list thus produced forms your bibliography. It is possible that your bibliography may contain just one item, the primary text, if that is honestly all you have used. The bibliography is organised according to the authors' last names which are arranged in alphabetical order.
Bibliographical entries differ from footnotes or endnotes in a straightforward way that is easy to remember. Bibliographies end assignments, and each component of an individual entry is presented in final form, punctuated by full stops.
Bibliographical entries may vary in complexity. In general, use the following ordering systems as your guide in presenting material. Appropriate punctuation is shown.
- name of author/s, editor/s or institution responsible for the book.
- Full Title of the Book : Including Sub-title.
- volume number or total number of volumes in a multi-volume work.
- edition, if not the first.
- city of publication :
- date of publication.
- name of author/s.
- "Title of the article."
- Title of Serial
- volume number,
- no. issue number
- page range of whole article.
Levine, Joseph M. The Battle of the Books : History and Literature in the Augustan Age. Ithaca : Cornell University Press, 1991.
Boswell, James. The Life of Samuel Johnson. Edited by George Birkbeck Hill and L.F. Powell. 2 vols. Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1934.
Soltes, Ori Z., ed. Georgia: Art and Civilization through the Ages. London: Philip Wilson, 1999.
Holloway, John. "Dickens and the Symbol," in Dickens 1970, edited by Michael Slater, 50-63. London : Chapman Hall, 1970.
MacFarlane,I. "Aboriginal Society in North West Tasmania: Dispossession and Genocide." PhD thesis, University of Tasmania, 2002.
Reprint Editions and Modern Editions
Fitzgerald, F. Scott. The Great Gatsby. New York: Scribner, 1925. Reprinted with preface and notes by Matthew J. Brouccoli. New York: Collier Books, 1992.
*The availability of an electronic version can be added as needed.
National Reconnaisance Office. The KH, 4B Camera System. Washington, DC: National Photographic Interpretation of the Center, 1967. Now declassified and also available online, http://www.fas.org/spp/military/program/inint/kh_4%20camera%20system.htm.
Ray, William. "Reading Women : Cultural Authority, Gender and the Novel : The Case of Rousseau." Eighteenth-Century Studies 27 (Spring 1994): 421-47.
Gold, Ann Godzins. "Grains of Truth : Shifting Hierarchies of Food and Grace in Three Rajasthani Tales." History of Religions 38, no. 2 (1998): 150-171.
Masterton, Mark. Review of The Sleep of Reason: Erotic Experience and Sexual Ethics in Ancient Rome, editedby Martha C. Nussbaum and Juha Sihvola. American Journal of Philology 124, no. 3 (2003): 477-81.
Journal article from electronic source
McDougall, K.L., B. A. Summerell, D. Coburn, and M. Newton. "Phytophthora Cinnamomi Causing Disease in Subalpine Vegetation in New South Wales." Australasian Plant Pathology 32, no. 1 (2003): 113-15. http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=AP02074.pdf.
University of Tasmania Library. "Management Subject Guide". University of Tasmania Library. http://www.utas.edu.au/library/info/subj/management.html.
[Only add access dates if the information is time sensitive.]
Marriage Act 1961 (Cth) s 11
Statute accessed from a web site
Tourism Australia Act 2004 (Cth) s 24 <http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/taa2004222/s24.html> (6 December 2004)
Integrity constraints are used to ensure accuracy and consistency of data in a relational database. Data integrity is handled in a relational database through the concept of referential integrity. Many types of integrity constraints play a role in referential integrity (RI).
Primary Key Constraints
Primary key is the term used to identify one or more columns in a table that make a row of data unique. Although the primary key typically consists of one column in a table, more than one column can comprise the primary key. For example, either the employee's Social Security number or an assigned employee identification number is the logical primary key for an employee table. The objective is for every record to have a unique primary key or value for the employee's identification number. Because there is probably no need to have more than one record for each employee in an employee table, the employee identification number makes a logical primary key. The primary key is assigned at table creation.
The following example identifies the column as the for the table:CREATE TABLE EMPLOYEE_TBL (EMP_ID CHAR(9) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY, EMP_NAME VARCHAR (40) NOT NULL, EMP_ST_ADDR VARCHAR (20) NOT NULL, EMP_CITY VARCHAR (15) NOT NULL, EMP_ST CHAR(2) NOT NULL, EMP_ZIP INTEGER(5) NOT NULL, EMP_PHONE INTEGER(10) NULL, EMP_PAGER INTEGER(10) NULL);
This method of defining a primary key is accomplished during table creation. The primary key in this case is an implied constraint. You can also specify a primary key explicitly as a constraint when setting up a table, as follows:CREATE TABLE EMPLOYEE_TBL (EMP_ID CHAR(9) NOT NULL, EMP_NAME VARCHAR (40) NOT NULL, EMP_ST_ADDR VARCHAR (20) NOT NULL, EMP_CITY VARCHAR (15) NOT NULL, EMP_ST CHAR(2) NOT NULL, EMP_ZIP INTEGER(5) NOT NULL, EMP_PHONE INTEGER(10) NULL, EMP_PAGER INTEGER(10) NULL, PRIMARY KEY (EMP_ID));
The primary key constraint in this example is defined after the column comma list in the statement.
A primary key that consists of more than one column can be defined by either of the following methods:CREATE TABLE PRODUCTS (PROD_ID VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL, VEND_ID VARCHAR2(10) NOT NULL, PRODUCT VARCHAR2(30) NOT NULL, COST NUMBER(8,2) NOT NULL, PRIMARY KEY (PROD_ID, VEND_ID)); ALTER TABLE PRODUCTS ADD CONSTRAINT PRODUCTS_PK PRIMARY KEY (PROD_ID, VEND_ID);
A unique column constraint in a table is similar to a primary key in that the value in that column for every row of data in the table must have a unique value. Although a primary key constraint is placed on one column, you can place a unique constraint on another column even though it is not actually for use as the primary key.
Study the following example:CREATE TABLE EMPLOYEE_TBL (EMP_ID CHAR(9) NOT NULL PRIMARY KEY, EMP_NAME VARCHAR (40) NOT NULL, EMP_ST_ADDR VARCHAR (20) NOT NULL, EMP_CITY VARCHAR (15) NOT NULL, EMP_ST CHAR(2) NOT NULL, EMP_ZIP INTEGER(5) NOT NULL, EMP_PHONE INTEGER(10) NULL UNIQUE, EMP_PAGER INTEGER(10) NULL);
The primary key in this example is , meaning that the employee identification number is the column that is used to ensure that every record in the table is unique. The primary key is a column that is normally referenced in queries, particularly to join tables. The column has been designated as a value, meaning that no two employees can have the same telephone number. There is not a lot of difference between the two, except that the primary key is used to provide an order to data in a table and, in the same respect, join related tables.
Foreign Key Constraints
A foreign key is a column in a child table that references a primary key in the parent table. A foreign key constraint is the main mechanism used to enforce referential integrity between tables in a relational database. A column defined as a foreign key is used to reference a column defined as a primary key in another table.
Study the creation of the foreign key in the following example:CREATE TABLE EMPLOYEE_PAY_TBL (EMP_ID CHAR(9) NOT NULL, POSITION VARCHAR2(15) NOT NULL, DATE_HIRE DATE NULL, PAY_RATE NUMBER(4,2) NOT NULL, DATE_LAST_RAISE DATE NULL, CONSTRAINT EMP_ID_FK FOREIGN KEY (EMP_ID) REFERENCES EMPLOYEE_TBL (EMP_ID));
The column in this example has been designated as the foreign key for the table. This foreign key, as you can see, references the column in the table. This foreign key ensures that for every in the , there is a corresponding in the . This is called a parent/child relationship. The parent table is the table, and the child table is the table. Study Figure 3.4 for a better understanding of the parent table/child table relationship.
In this figure, the column in the child table references the column in the parent table. For a value to be inserted for in the child table, a value for in the parent table must first exist. Likewise, for a value to be removed for in the parent table, all corresponding values for must first be removed from the child table. This is how referential integrity works.
A foreign key can be added to a table using the command, as shown in the following example:alter table employee_pay_tbl add constraint id_fk foreign key (emp_id) references employee_tbl (emp_id);
Previous examples use the keywords and listed on the same line as each column and after the data type. is a constraint that you can place on a table's column. This constraint disallows the entrance of values into a column; in other words, data is required in a column for each row of data in the table. is generally the default for a column if is not specified, allowing values in a column.
Check () constraints can be utilized to check the validity of data entered into particular table columns. Check constraints are used to provide back-end database edits, although edits are commonly found in the front-end application as well. General edits restrict values that can be entered into columns or objects, whether within the database itself or on a front-end application. The check constraint is a way of providing another protective layer for the data.
The following example illustrates the use of a check constraint:CREATE TABLE EMPLOYEE_TBL (EMP_ID CHAR(9) NOT NULL, EMP_NAME VARCHAR2(40) NOT NULL, EMP_ST_ADDR VARCHAR2(20) NOT NULL, EMP_CITY VARCHAR2(15) NOT NULL, EMP_ST CHAR(2) NOT NULL, EMP_ZIP NUMBER(5) NOT NULL, EMP_PHONE NUMBER(10) NULL, EMP_PAGER NUMBER(10) NULL), PRIMARY KEY (EMP_ID), CONSTRAINT CHK_EMP_ZIP CHECK ( EMP_ZIP = '46234');
The check constraint in this table has been placed on the column, ensuring that all employees entered into this table have a ZIP code of . Perhaps that is a little restricting. Nevertheless, you can see how it works.
If you wanted to use a check constraint to verify that the ZIP code is within a list of values, your constraint definition could look like the following:CONSTRAINT CHK_EMP_ZIP CHECK ( EMP_ZIP in ('46234','46227','46745') );
If there is a minimum pay rate that can be designated for an employee, you could have a constraint that looks like the following:CREATE TABLE EMPLOYEE_PAY_TBL (EMP_ID CHAR(9) NOT NULL, POSITION VARCHAR2(15) NOT NULL, DATE_HIRE DATE NULL, PAY_RATE NUMBER(4,2) NOT NULL, DATE_LAST_RAISE DATE NULL, CONSTRAINT EMP_ID_FK FOREIGN KEY (EMP_ID) REFERENCES EMPLOYEE_TBL (EMP_ID), CONSTRAINT CHK_PAY CHECK ( PAY_RATE > 12.50 ) );
In this example, any employee entered in this table must be paid more than $12.50 an hour. You can use just about any condition in a check constraint, as you can with a SQL query. You learn more about these conditions in Hours 5 and 7.
Any constraint that you have defined can be dropped using the command with the option. For example, to drop the primary key constraint in the table, you can use the following command:ALTER TABLE EMPLOYEES DROP CONSTRAINT EMPLOYEES_PK; Table altered.
Some implementations might provide shortcuts for dropping certain constraints. For example, to drop the primary key constraint for a table in MySQL, you can use the following command:ALTER TABLE EMPLOYEES DROP PRIMARY KEY; Table altered.